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Table 5 Multivariable regression analysis for antimicrobial resistance load (Log10 CFU) for children aged 0–5 years

From: Carriage of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in a high-density informal settlement in Kenya is associated with environmental risk-factors

Predictors Ampicillin Streptomycin Sulfamethoxazole Tetracycline Trimethoprim
β [95% CI] β [95% CI] β [95% CI] β [95% CI] β [95% CI]
Night toilet type      
 Ventilator improved pit 0.03 [− 0.95, 1.00] 0.46 [− 0.73, 1.64] 0.25 [− 0.65, 1.16] − 0.59 [− 1.81, 0.64] 0.02 [− 0.81, 0.86]
 Pit with concrete slab 0.24 [− 0.38, 0.86] 0.41 [− 0.35, 1.17] 0.18 [− 0.39, 0.76] − 0.38 [− 1.17, 0.41] 0.06 [− 0.48, 0.59]
 Traditional pit latrinea 0.00 [− 0.75, 0.75] 0.25 [− 0.66, 1.16] 0.14 [− 0.56, 0.84] − 1.39 [− 2.33, − 0.45] 0.20 [-0.44, 0.85]
 Bucket/plastic − 0.08 [− 0.69, 0.53] 0.19 [− 0.55, 0.93] − 0.01 [− 0.57, 0.56] − 0.99 [− 1.77, − 0.21] -0.17 [-0.70, 0.35]
 No facilities/open field − 0.07 [− 1.05, 0.91] − 0.43 [− 1.63, 0.76] − 0.19 [− 1.09, 0.72] − 1.28 [− 2.56, 0.00] -0.78 [ 1.63, 0.06]
Handwashing after urination 0.20 [0.03, 0.38] 0.06 [− 0.16, 0.27] 0.12 [− 0.04, 0.28] 0.08 [− 0.14, 0.31] 0.19 [0.04, 0.34]
Handwashing facility location      
 Toilet within premises 0.12 [− 0.23, 0.47] 0.19 [− 0.24, 0.62] 0.17 [− 0.16, 0.50] 0.28 [− 0.18, 0.74] 0.28 [ 0.03, 0.58]
 Elsewhere on premisesb 0.45 [0.12, 0.78] 0.39 [− 0.01, 0.79] 0.35 [0.05, 0.66] 0.26 [− 0.16, 0.68] 0.28 [0.00, 0.57]
Child eats soil 0.59 [0.27, 0.91] 0.52 [0.14, 0.91] 0.22 [− 0.08, 0.52] 0.80 [0.40, 1.21] 0.25 [0.03, 0.52]
Rainfall (per mm) − 2.02 [− 3.28, − 0.76] − 1.26 [− 2.80, 0.27] − 0.69 [− 1.85, 0.47] 1.74 [0.07, 3.40] 0.82 [1.91, 0.27]
Altitude (10 m increments) − 0.01 [− 0.01, 0.00] 0.00 [− 0.01, 0.01] − 0.01 [− 0.01, 0.00] − 0.01 [− 0.01, 0.00] − 0.01 [− 0.01, 0.00]
Household used antibiotic 0.39 [− 0.07, 0.84] 0.22 [− 0.34, 0.77] 0.46 [0.04, 0.88] 0.10 [− 0.49, 0.69] 0.42 [0.02, 0.81]
  1. Only variables with P < 0·2 in the univariable mixed-effects model were included in the multivariable model. Regression estimates for increasing or decreasing antimicrobial load (positive or negative β coefficients, respectively) and 95% confidence intervals with P < 0·05 are shown in bold. Only variables with significant values are shown. See Additional file 6 for complete table
  2. aSingle pit covered by a wooden or earthen slab with a drop hole
  3. bOther than at a toilet facility or the household kitchen