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Table 2 Analysis of factors associated with carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii complex isolates in Germany

From: The epidemiology of carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii complex in Germany (2014–2018): an analysis of data from the national Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance system

  Univariable analysis Multivariable analysis
  OR (95% CI) p value OR (95% CI) p value
Year of sampling (per 1 year increase)
2014–2018 0.84 (0.77–0.91) < 0.001 0.85 (0.79–0.93) < 0.001
Care setting type
Outpatient clinics 1 1
Secondary care hospitals 3.91 (2.40–6.39) < 0.001 3.59 (2.44–5.27) < 0.001
Tertiary care hospitals 4.74 (2.31–9.74) < 0.001 5.41 (2.93–9.99) < 0.001
Specialist care hospitals 5.85 (3.23–10.61) < 0.001 7.24 (3.90–13.43) < 0.001
Prevention and rehabilitation care centres 7.21 (3.21–16.17) < 0.001 9.58 (3.02–30.32) < 0.001
Other hospitals 0.66 (0.11–4.17) 0.661 –* –* –*
German region
Northeast 0.37 (0.19–0.73) 0.004 0.25 (0.12–0.51) < 0.001
Southeast 0.32 (0.17–0.61) < 0.001 0.20 (0.11–0.36) < 0.001
Southwest 0.42 (0.22–0.80) 0.008 0.31 (0.18–0.52) < 0.001
West 1 1
Northwest 0.94 (0.33–2.66) 0.905 0.72 (0.37–1.40) 0.338
Patient gender
Female 1 1
Male 2.19 (1.70–2.84) < 0.001 1.91 (1.55–2.36) < 0.001
Patient age
< 1 year 0.08 (0.03–0.19) < 0.001 0.06 (0.03–0.14) < 0.001
1–19 years 0.20 (0.13–0.30) < 0.001 0.21 (0.17–0.38) < 0.001
20–39 years 1.17 (0.84–1.63) 0.359 1.56 (1.10–2.23) 0.014
40–59 years 1 1
60–79 years 0.92 (0.73–1.17) 0.487 0.96 (0.73–1.26) 0.775
80 ≥ years 0.31 (0.23–0.42) < 0.001 0.37 (0.28–0.49) < 0.001
Clinical specimen material
Upper respiratory 1 1
Lower respiratory 3.07 (2.45–3.84) < 0.001 1.52 (1.21–1.91)  < 0.001
Other respiratory 2.42 (1.42–4.13) 0.001 1.52 (0.95–2.43) 0.081
Blood 2.10 (1.32–3.34) 0.002 1.25 (0.91–1.73) 0.167
Wound 0.68 (0.52–0.90) 0.007 0.44 (0.33–0.59) < 0.001
Urine 0.55 (0.43–0.71) < 0.001 0.37 (0.27–0.51) < 0.001
Other 1.13 (0.88–1.44) 0.345 0.89 (0.70–1.12) 0.317
  1. 95% CI 95% confidence interval, OR odds ratio
  2. *Data not presented due to the very low isolate number (n = 72), all isolates were not resistant against carbapenems