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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of patients infected without and with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-Enterobacterales

From: Temporal trends, risk factors and outcomes of infections due to extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing Enterobacterales in Swiss solid organ transplant recipients between 2012 and 2018

  Cases (N = 51) Controls (N = 51)
Male, N (%) 28 (54.9%) 17 (33.3%)
Age at time of infection, mean (SD) 54.8 (12) 53.4 (14.8)
Transplanted organ (matched variable)
 Kidney 33 (64.7%) 33 (64.7%)
 Kidney-pancreas 4 (7.8%) 4 (7.8%)
 Liver (incl kidney-liver) 9 (17.6%) 9 (17.6%)
 Heart 5 (9.8%) 5 (9.8%)
BMI at transplantation, mean (SD) 25.5 (4.1) 25.1 (4.2)
Caucasian ethnicity, N (%) 46 (90.2%) 49 (96.1%)
Comorbidities, N (%)
 Cardiopulmonary disease 27 (52.9%) 25 (49%)
 Metabolic/endocrine disease 35 (68.6%) 43 (84.3%)
 Cancer 8 (15.7%) 6 (11.8%)
 Other 32 (62.7%) 31 (60.8%)
Previously documented ESBL colonizationa 19 (37%) 0 (0%)
Antibioticsb (30 days before infection), N (%) 24 (47.1%) 14 (27.5%)
 BL/BLI 10 (37%) 6 (28.6%)
 Carbapenem 6 (22.2%) 3 (14.3%)
 Quinolone 10 (37%) 3 (14.3%)
 Cephalosporine 7 (25.9%) 0 (0%)
 Sulfamethoxazol/trimethoprim 7 (25.9%) 4 (19%)
Hospital-onset, N (%) 20 (39.2%) 19 (37.3)
Day of onset (median, IQR) 20 (9.5–60) 8 (6–42)
Days from transplantation to infection, median (IQR) 67 (24–228) 71 (33–227)
Year of 1st infection, N (%)
 2012 6 (11.8%) 8 (15.7%)
 2013 9 (17.6%) 13 (25.5%)
 2014 14 (27.5%) 12 (23.5%)
 2015 16 (31.4%) 10 (19.6%)
 2016 6 (11.8%) 8 (15.7%)
Infection site, N (%)
 Urinary tract 38 (74.5%) 39 (76.5%)
 With bacteremia 5 (13.2%) 10 (25.6%)
 Abdominal/liver 2 (3.9%) 3 (5.9%)
 Respiratory tract 3 (5.9%) 5 (9.8%)
 Surgical site 3 (5.9%) 4 (7.8%)
 Primary bacteremia 2 (3.9%) 1 (2.0%)
 Other 3 (5.9%) 1 (2.0%)
If urinary tract infection, N (%)
 Obstruction 2/38 (5.3%) 5/39 (12.8%)
 Catheter 12/38 (31.6%) 17/39 (43.6%)
  1. ESBL extended-spectrum beta-lactamase, SD standard deviation, BMI body mass index, IQR interquartile range, BL/BLI beta-lactam/beta-lactamase-inhibitor
  2. aPreviously ESBL colonized participants were not eligible for the control group
  3. bIncluding prophylaxis