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Table 2 Univariate and multivariate analysis of risk factors and outcomes related to CRAB colonization

From: Risk factors for nosocomial rectal colonization with carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in hospital: a matched case–control study

Variables Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
OR 95% CI P value OR 95% CI P value
Age (years) 0.99 0.97–1.01 0.767    
Sex, male 0.71 0.34–1.49 0.378    
LOS 1.02 1.01–1.04 < 0.001 1.03 1.01–1.05 0.002
ICU stay 3.2 1.46–6.99 0.004    
aDeaths 5.5 1.77–17.01 0.003    
Provenance of patient at admission       
Home Ref.      
LTHCF 16.14 1.91–136 0.011    
Other hospital 0.76 0.14–3.99 0.754    
Recent hospitalization 3.02 0.98–9.34 0.054    
Charlson Comorbidity Index 1.15 0.99–1.33 0.053    
McCabe score, nonfatal vs. fatal disease and rapidly fatal disease 2.12 1.08–4.14 0.027 5.45 1.87–15.89 0.002
Major surgery ≤ 30 days before hospitalization 1.34 0.21–8.37 0.748    
Major surgery during hospitalization 1.75 0.79–3.87 0.167    
Diagnosis at hospital admission       
Infection ref      
Polytrauma 0.19 0.04–0.91 0.038    
Cardiovascular disease 1.12 0.45–2.79 0.800    
Cancer 0.42 0.0.4–3.94 0.449    
Presence of intrinsic risk factors and comorbidity       
Chronic heart failure 1.44 0.69–2.99 0.327    
Hypertension 1.04 0.49–2.21 0.899    
Peripheral vascular disease 2.47 1.15–5.28 0.019    
Stroke or TIA 1.55 0.73–3.28 0.247    
Dementia 2.06 0.95–4.43 0.064    
COPD 1.32 0.54–3.20 0.538    
Chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis 0.73 0.18–2.90 0.657    
Gastrointestinal disease 0.54 0.24–1.19 0.130    
Solid neoplasia 1.10 0.51–2.37 0.794    
CKD 0.70 0.32–1.52 0.370    
Diabetes mellitus 1.54 0.70–3.38 0.277    
Disability       
No disability ref      
Partial 2.26 0.90–5.65 0.79    
Bedridden 5.29 1.85–15.12 0.002    
Permanent devices 4.52 1.55–13.22 0.006 10.15 2.27–45.39 0.002
Presence of extrinsic risk factors       
Central vascular catheterization 10.37 3.93–27.32 < 0.001    
PICC or midline 4.52 1.55–13.22 0.006    
Urinary catheter 7.23 2.91–17.96 < 0.001 4.96 1.52–16.19 0.008
Naso-gastric tube 4.16 1.57–10.99 0.004    
PEG 11.12 1.25–98–33 0.030    
Tracheostomy 10.54 2.79–39.75 0.001    
Mechanical ventilation 3.38 1.19–9.61 0.022 40.01 4.05–395.1 0.002
Dialysis 2.07 0.40–10.70 0.385    
Blood transfusion 0.88 0.38–2.03 0.781    
Antibiotics ≤ 30 days before hospitalization 2.22 0.81–6.06 0.119    
Chemotherapy 4.46 1.06–18.76 0.041    
Corticosteroid therapy 2.75 1.20–6.29 0.016    
Antibiotics during hospitalization 8.26 1.86–36–72 0.005    
3GC 1.90 0.90–4.01 0.089    
Carbapenems 6.66 2.19–20.20 0.001 5.39 1.14–25.44 0.033
Penicillins 1.93 0.90–4.11 0.088    
Fluoroquinolones 2.09 0.86–5.08 0.101    
Glycopeptides 3.5 1.44–8.48 0.006    
Polytherapy 4.65 2.13–10.14 < 0.001    
Number of antibiotics used in the hospitalization, mean ± SD (range) 1.73 1.36–2.19 < 0.001    
  1. CI, confidence interval; OR, odds ratio
  2. aModel for multivariable logistic regression included surveillance status, mechanical ventilation, sex, and exposure to any antibiotic (fit criteria quasi-likelihood criterion [QIC] = 336)