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Table 2 Univariate and multivariate associations with the stratified outcomes “SSI”, "non-infectious wound healing disorders" and "other non-infectious complications" (Cox regression analyses; results expressed as hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals)

From: Impact of a total lockdown for pandemic SARS-CoV-2 (Covid-19) on deep surgical site infections and other complications after orthopedic surgery: a retrospective analysis

Variables SSI (n = 43) Wound healing disorders (n = 39) Other complications (n = 225)
Univariate Multivariate Univariate Multivariate Univariate Multivariate
Female sex 1.0, 0.6–1.8 1.1, 0.6–2.0 0.7, 0.3–1.3 0.6, 0.3–1.3 1.0, 0.8–1.3 1.0, 0.8–1.4
Age (continuous) 1.0, 1.0–1.0 1.0, 1.0–1.0 1.0, 1.0–1.0 1.0, 1.0–1.0 1.0, 1.0–1.0 1.0, 1.0–1.0
Diabetes mellitus 2.7, 1.3–5.7 2.1, 0.9–4.9 2.6, 1.2–5.8 1.4, 0.5–3.7 1.2, 0.7–1.8 0.8, 0.5–1.3
Body mass index (continuous) 1.0, 1.0–1.1 1.0, 0.9–1.1 1.1, 1.1–1.2 1.1, 1.0–1.1 1.0, 1.0–1.1 1.0, 1.0–1.0
 ASA (continuous) 1.7, 1.1–2.6 - 2.2, 1.4–3.4 - 1.4, 1.2–1.7 -
 ASA 2 compared to Score 1 1.4, 0.5–3.8 1.4, 0.5–3.9 3.0, 0.7–13.0 2.1, 0.4–9.9 1.1, 0.8–1.7 1.1, 0.7–1.7
 ASA 3 compared to Score 1 2.7, 1.0–7.5 2.4, 0.7–8.5 8.2, 1.9–35.1 3.3, 0.6–19.0 2.0, 1.3–3.0 1.7, 1.0–3.0
 ASA 4 compared to Score 1 3.9, 0.8–20.6 3.9, 0.6–26.9 4.9, 0.4–54.5 3.0, 0.2–44.1 1.8, 0.7–4.3 1.8, 0.6–5.2
Revision surgery 0.3, 0.1–2.0 - 0.5, 0.2–1.8 0.6, 0.2–2.1 1.0, 0.6–1.4 0.7, 0.3–1.5
Duration of surgery 1 - 1 - 1 -
 0.5–0.8 h compared to < 0.5 h 1.9,0.8–4.3 1.9, 0.8–4.6 5.1, 2.0–12.6 5.5, 1.8–16.6 2.0, 1.4–2.8 1.7, 1.2–2.5
 > 0.8 h compared to < 0.5 h 3.8, 1.8–8.2 3.6, 1.6–8.0 3.8, 1.4–10.1 3.5, 1.1–11.5 2.9, 2.0–4.0 2.3, 1.6–3.3
Study period 1 - 1 - 1 -
 Lockdown vs. Pre-Lockdown 1.8, 0.6–5.2 1.6, 0.6–4.8 0.6, 0.1–4.6 0.7, 0.1–5.7 0.7, 0.3–1.4 0.7, 0.3–1.5
 Post-lockdown vs. Pre-Lockdown 0.5, 0.2–0.9 0.4, 0.2–0.8 0.9, 0.5–1.8 0.9, 0.4–1.9 0.5, 0.4–0.7 0.5, 0.3–0.6
  1. Statistically significant results are displayed in bold and italic
  2. In the first multivariate model, the group of SSI was compared to all other non-infected surgery episodes. In the second analysis, non-infectious wound problems were compared to all episodes without SSI or wound problems, and in the last analysis, all local complications versus all uneventful surgeries
  3. “–“ = not included. SSI = surgical site infection