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Table 2 Pathogen Distributions in EOS, CALOS and HALOS at 25 NICUs, January 2017–December 2019

From: Pathogens distribution and antimicrobial resistance in bloodstream infections in twenty-five neonatal intensive care units in China, 2017–2019

Pathogens EOS
(n = 349 in 349 infants)
n (%)
HALOS*
(n = 702 in 698 infants)
n (%)
CALOS
(n = 41 in 41infants)
n (%)
Total
(n = 1092 in 1088 infants)
n (%)
Gram-positive bacteria 149 (42.7) 175 (25.0) 36 (87.8) 360 (33.0)
 CoNS 28 (8.0) 81 (11.5) 0 109 (10.0)
 GBS 51 (14.6) 15 (2.1) 19 (46.3) 85 (7.8)
 Staphylococcus aureus 19 (5.4) 35 (5.0) 17 (41.5) 71 (6.6)
 Enterococcus spp. 11 (3.2) 18 (2.6) 0 29 (2.7)
 Listeria monocytogenes 22 (6.3) 1 (0.1) 0 23 (2.1)
 Other Gram-positive bacteria 18 (5.2) 25(3.6) 0 43 (4.0)
Gram-negative bacteria 198 (56.7) 437 (62.2) 5 (12.2) 640 (58.6)
 Escherichia coli 95 (27.2) 110(15.7) 4 (9.8) 209 (19.1)
 Klebsiella pneumoniae 31 (8.9) 196 (27.9) 0 227 (20.8)
 Enterobacter spp. 19 (5.4) 50 (7.1) 1 (2.4) 70 (6.5)
 Serratia marcescens 19 (5.4) 19 (2.7) 0 38 (3.5)
 Acinetobacter baumannii 9 (2.6) 28 (4.0) 0 37 (3.4)
 Pseudomonas aeruginosa 5 (1.4) 16 (2.3) 0 21 (2.0)
 Other Gram-negative bacteria 20 (5.8) 18 (2.6) 0 38 (3.5)
Fungi 2 (0.6) 90 (12.8) 0 92 (8.4)
Candida albicans 2 (0.6) 37 (5.3) 0 39 (3.6)
Candida parapsilosis 0 18 (2.6) 0 18 (1.6)
Candida glabrata 0 10 (1.4) 0 10 (0.9)
Candida guilliemondii 0 8 (1.1) 0 8 (0.7)
Candida tropicalis 0 3 (0.4) 0 3 (0.3)
Other fungi 0 14 (2.0) 0 14 (1.3)
  1. *Four infants had HALOS caused by polymicrobial pathogens, namely one with Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, one with Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterococcus species, and two infants with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae