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Table 1 Characteristics of clusters of healthcare workers (HCW) participating in the survey on antibiotic use and resistance, Italy, 2019

From: Knowledge, attitudes and behaviors on antibiotic use and resistance among healthcare workers in Italy, 2019: investigation by a clustering method

HCW characteristics (%) Cluster 1
(n = 442)
Cluster 2
(n = 503)
Cluster 3
(n = 748)
p-value
Sex (female) 73.4 67.8 40.2  < 0.001
Age  < 0.001
 18–45 years 42.1 59.8 30.5
 46 years-over 57.9 40.2 69.5
Profession  < 0.001
 Medical Doctor 19.5 99.7
 Pharmacist 12.0 99.8 0.1
 Allied HCW 53.8 0.2 0.1
 Other 14.7 0.1
Years in profession  < 0.001
 ≤ 25 years 66.3 76.3 51.3
 > 25 years 33.7 23.7 48.7
Role  < 0.001
 Research 14.5 0.8 2.5
 Generalist 20.6 85.7 52.5
 Public Health and Management 31.7 12.5 5.3
 Specialist infection 10.9 6.6
 Specialist non-infection 22.4 1.0 33.0
Setting  < 0.001
 Community 4.4 45.9
 Governmental Organization 10.0 0.2 4.8
 Hospital 75.2 44.2
 Other 1.9 2.3
 Pharmacy 99.8
 University 8.6 2.8
Prescriber (Yes) 0.7 1.8 100  < 0.001
Advice on antibiotics (Yes) 59.0 93.2 98.5  < 0.001
Use of Social Media (Yes) 60.6 64.2 56.6 0.024
  1. *Results are reported as percentage and compared using the Chi-square test