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Table 2 The ten most urgent priorities for action against the spread of antimicrobial resistance cited by participants of the 4 th WHAI Forum

From: Antimicrobial resistance: a global view from the 2013 World Healthcare-Associated Infections Forum

For policy-makers and health authorities:
1 Limit the use of antimicrobials in food-producing animals by banning non-therapeutic applications, including growth promotion and metaphylaxis
2 Establish and enforce regulations on sales of antimicrobials for use in human medicine, including prohibition of over-the-counter sales worldwide
3 Develop a detailed charter on antimicrobial conservation to be ratified and upheld by ministries of health worldwide
4 Develop coordinated and culturally sensitive awareness campaigns targeting the general public and imparting the importance of protecting antimicrobials as a limited and non-renewable resource
5 Rigorously support the improvement of sanitation systems to eliminate resistant microbes in wastewater; regularly provide education about fundamental practices such as hand hygiene to prevent the spread of infection
6 Together with the pharmaceutical industry, explore (1) incentives to stimulate research and fast-track development of novel antimicrobials and (2) new economic models that reconcile public health interests with industry profitability
For the human and veterinary healthcare communities:
7 Establish standardized, universal methods and metrics for surveillance of antimicrobial use and resistance development, respectively
8 In medical and veterinary school curricula, require universal and detailed instruction in microbial resistance development and the prudent use of antimicrobials; for physicians and veterinarians in training, require on-the-job refresher courses
For the general public:
9 Include patients and other antimicrobial consumers in the development and implementation of action plans
For industry:
10 Continue to develop and advance point-of-care rapid diagnostic tests to avoid the prescription of antibiotics for viral infections and allow more targeted therapy