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Table 5 Univariate and multivariate cox regression analysis for the risk for mortality after discharge from index hospitalization

From: Risk for subsequent infection and mortality after hospitalization among patients with multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria colonization or infection

  All-cause mortality MDRGNB infection-associated mortality
Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
HR (95% CI) p-value HR (95% CI) p-value HR (95% CI) p-value HR (95% CI) p-value
Age (per year increase) 1.02 (1.01–1.03) 0.001 1.02 (1.01–1.03) 0.006 1.04 (1.02–1.06) < 0.001 1.03 (1.01–1.05) 0.008
Male sex 1.34 (0.96–1.88) 0.09 1.24 (0.71–2.16) 0.45
LTCF residence 1.33 (0.65–2.71) 0.43 2.37 (0.94–5.95) 0.07
Long-term hemodialysis 1.10 (0.45–2.68) 0.84 1.86 (0.58–5.96) 0.30
Diabetes mellitus 0.89 (0.62–1.29) 0.89 0.93 (0.51–1.72) 0.82
Malignancy 6.28 (4.52–8.73) < 0.001 5.30 (3.73–7.53) < 0.001 2.32 (1.32–4.07) 0.004 2.34 (1.28–4.26) 0.006
End-stage renal disease 0.82 (0.34–2.00) 0.82 1.40 (0.44–4.48) 0.57
Liver cirrhosis 1.65 (1.04–2.61) 0.034 0.81 (0.29–2.23) 0.68
Congestive heart failure 1.25 (0.74–2.10) 0.41 2.38 (1.20–4.73) 0.014
COPD 1.40 (0.88–2.25) 0.16 2.62 (1.38–4.99) 0.003
Cerebrovascular accident 0.90 (0.57–1.43) 0.65 1.76 (0.94–3.28) 0.08
High CCI (≥5) 3.33 (2.41–4.60) < 0.001 1.80 (1.27–2.55) < 0.001 3.56 (2.08–6.12) < 0.001 1.96 (1.10–3.49) 0.022
Presence of pressure sore 1.98 (1.13–3.41) 0.016 1.93 (0.77–4.85) 0.16
Central vascular cathetera,b 4.07 (2.66–6.22) < 0.001 2.80 (1.26–6.21) 0.012
Long-term urinary catheterb 0.35 (0.13–0.94) 0.037 0.29 (0.11–0.80) 0.017 0.49 (0.12–2.02) 0.33
Antibiotics exposurec 1.70 (1.14–2.56) 0.010 3.96 (1.58–9.95) 0.003
MDRGNB culture positivec,d 2.40 (1.66–3.46) < 0.001 2.42 (1.67–3.50) < 0.001 5.91 (3.44–10.14) < 0.001 4.88 (2.79–8.52) < 0.001
  1. Abbreviations: MDRGNB multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria, LTCF long-term care facility, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, CCI Charlson comorbidity index
  2. aIncluding port-A catheter, Hickman catheter, permcath catheter, double-lumen catheter, and peripherally inserted central catheter
  3. bAt the time of index hospitalization discharge
  4. cDuring index hospitalization
  5. dIncluding positive MDRGNB culture from either surveillance or clinical culture of any anatomical site