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Table 4 Predictors of poor outcomes of TB treatment among multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients (n = 103)

From: Treatment outcomes of drug-resistant tuberculosis in the Netherlands, 2005–2015

No Predictors Non-Poor outcome (n = 91; %) Poor outcomeb (n = 12; %) Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis*
Odds ratio (95% CI) p-value Odds ratio (95% CI) p-value
1 Socio-demographic
 Male 42 (46.2) 11 (91.7) 12.83 (1.59–103.57) 0.003 9.80 (1.18–81.68) 0.035
 Age (years):     0.42 Not included
  18–24 26 (28.6) 2 (16.7) Ref.
  25–64 63 (69.2) 9 (75) 1.86 (0.38–9.19)
  65+ 2 (2.2) 1 (8.3) 6.50 (0.39–106.71)
 Foreign-born patientsd 89 (97.8) 12 (100) n/a 0.99 Not included
 Urban domicilec 21 (23.1) 5 (41.7) 0.42 (0.12–1.46) 0.17 Not included
2 Current TB diagnosis
 Pulmonary diagnosis:     0.88 Not included
  ETB 21 (23.1) 2 (16.7) Ref.
  PTB 55 (60.4) 8 (66.7) 1.53 (0.30–7.79)
  ETB + PTB 15 (16.5) 2 (16.7) 1.40 (0.17–11.08)
 Type of TB location:     0.71 Not included
  Lungs 65 (71.4) 8 (66.7) 0.95 (0.23–3.86)
  Miliary and central nervous system 3 (3.3) 1 (8.3) 2.56 (0.19–33.16)
  Others 23 (25.3) 3 (25) Ref.
 Diagnosed by a doctor abroad 5 (5.5) 0 (0) n/a 0.41 Not included
3 History of TB disease & treatment
 Previously diagnosed with TBa 18 (22.5) 4 (33.3) 1.72 (0.47–6.38) 0.47 Not included
 Previously LTBI treatmenta 5 (6.4) 0 (0) n/a 0.38 Not included
4 The risk group of TB
 TB contacts 4 (4.4) 1 (8.3) 1.98 (0.20–19.32) 0.47 Not included
 Immigrants 20 (22) 1 (8.2) 0.32 (0.04–2.65) 0.45 Not included
 Asylum seekers 27 (29.7) 4 (33.3) 1.18 (0.33–4.27) 0.75 Not included
 Illegal residence persons 5 (5.5) 0 (0) n/a 0.41 Not included
 Homeless individual 2 (2.2) 2 (16.7) 8.9 (1.13–70.26) 0.02 2.15 (0.19–24.28) 0.54
 Alcohol dependence 0 (0) 1 (8.3) n/a 0.12 n/a
 Substance abuse 2 (2.2) 3 (25) 14.83 (2.18–100.78) 0.01 7.50 (1.07–52.37) 0.04
 Health care workers 1 (1.1) 0 (0) n/a 0.72 Not included
 Travellers from/in endemic areas for more than 3 month 5 (5.5) 0 (0) n/a 0.41 Not included
 Prisoners 4 (4.4) 0 (0) n/a 0.46 Not included
5 Comorbidities
 Diabetes 3 (3.3) 1 (8.3) 2.67 (0.26–27.92) 0.39 Not included
 Malignancy 2 (2.2) 0 (0) n/a 0.60 n/a
 Insufficient renal function or undergoing dialysis 0 (0) 0 (0) n/a n/a n/a
 Organ transplantation 0 (0) 0 (0) n/a n/a n/a
  1. Information: * The cases were analysed using backward step elimination method in the multivariate analysis; The Hosmer and Lemeshow test: 1.00; Ref.: Reference; Not included: the predictor was not included due to p-value > 0.15 in the univariate analysis; amissing data: previously diagnosed TB: 11 (10.7%), Previously treated LTBI: 14 (13.6%). LTBI: Latent Tuberculosis Infection. bPoor outcome of treatment is a combination of unsuccessful treatment and death outcome due to tuberculosis; cUrban domicile: Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague and Utrecht; n/a: not applicable due to small number of event; dForeign-born countries: Somalia 25 (24.3%), Georgia 8 (7.8%), Russia 6 (5.8%), India 5 (49%), Others 57 (55.33%)